This is going to sound like a dead horse getting beaten, but looking at the line count for mods installed from the workshop folder, your Starbound log above shows 121 loaded mod lines. Furrybound has 102 supported mods. Unless they're all 100% client side, that's up to 19 mods that may be causing the problem.
I was caught off guard earlier finding out I also still had the Active Stealth mod installed (I noticed I had 103 mods, sadly Active Stealth was not the cause of my crash). Here is where I had to go to definitely uninstall any unsupported mods. http://imgur.com/hnfr4F5
And you have to do it one by one for every unsupported mod. None of the sub/unsub all buttons are working it seems. You would probably have to open the Furrybound list in one browser window, while looking at your own subscribed page, and sort both lists the same way, Alphabetical, or which ever.
Update: Steam is also really bad about updating your subscribed mod list, in regards to pages, as you unsubscribe. Just be careful and thorough as you page through your mods and unsubscribe any as needed. Did I mention I hate the workshop?